The first area focused upon by doctors treating Parkinson’s disease is replacing brain dopamine, a neurotransmitter that controls and coordinates movement. Parkinson’s disease destroys the cells in the brain that create dopamine. As levels of the chemical fall, the body is unable to move and function as it once did. Falling dopamine levels translate to increasing movement impairment

The most commonly prescribed treatments for Parkinson’s disease seek to stimulate dopamine receptors and relieve the symptoms caused by the decline in the neurotransmitter dopamine. However, over time, these medications become less efficient, and medication side-effects may further compound the motor symptoms of the disease

At Richmond Neurology, we offer the most up-to-date evaluation of Parkinson’s symptoms and medication effects and offer treatment with the full range of advanced therapies the disease, including:

  • Deep brain stimulation
  • Apomine continuous infusion
  • Duodopa


Deep brain stimulation for the management of Parkinson’s, Tremor disorders and Dystonia

Deep brain stimulation is a cutting edge surgical procedure used to treat a range of conditions including:

  • the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease such as tremor, rigidity, stiffness, slowed movement, and walking problems
  • tremor disorders including essential tremor
  • Dystonia (a disorder of abnormal muscular contractions)
  • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Before the procedure, a neurosurgeon uses magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scanning to identify and locate the exact target within the brain where electrical nerve signals generate the PD symptoms. Brain targets can include thalamus, subthalamic nucleus, and globus pallidus

Once the system is in place, electrical impulses are sent from the neurostimulator, usually implanted under the skin of the chest wall, up along the extension wire and the lead and into the brain. These impulses interfere with and block the electrical signals that cause PD symptoms


Apomine Continous Infusion Therapy

Apomorphine is a highly effective and powerful anti-Parkinson drug that belongs to a group of drugs known as “dopamine agonists

The infusion is given via a small needle placed under the skin to provide constant levels of medication through the entire day

It benefits patients who experience “on-off” fluctuations despite their oral tablets and can reduce troublesome medication related abnormal involuntary movements (dyskinesias)



Duodopa is a new means of delivering the current gold-standard of PD treatment via a pump directly into the small intestine

Patients can experience dramatic improvements in
medication on time with this novel system.